持有儿童情色物品

laptopHolding child pornography is an extremely serious allegation that is becoming more common in society. With the development of technology and the availability of information anytime, anywhere, child pornography is easily accessible through the Internet and file-sharing software, which can transfer folders from one computer to another, which in turn leads to a The law is easy to break the law.

Child pornography is not limited to photographs or movies. It also includes holding a publication or a computer game that shows minors engaged in sexual activity or describing minors in an indecent sexual manner or background. The minor associated with this offence is a person under the age of 18.

People who are prosecuted in child pornography are usually people who have never been in court before and live a normal life. In the pleading pleading, the key to explaining this behaviour to the court is to provide a detailed report by a forensic psychologist to explain this behaviour. Interpretation is not an excuse, but there are often potential compulsion reasons to help judges or judges understand it more clearly.

This offence is governed by Section 51G of the Crimes Act 1958 (the Act).

Jurisdiction restrictions

Holding child pornography is a felony and can be severely punished. The offence is punishable by up to five years in prison. A summary of child pornography often faces multiple charges based on when and where pornographic content is downloaded and stored. The severity of the illegal act, determined in part by the number of images and the type of pornography, will determine which jurisdiction will hear the case. For example, if the defendant has several photos on his mobile phone, a small portion of child pornography may be heard in the local court. A person who holds tens of thousands of child pornographic images, videos and computer games is more likely to handle their affairs in a higher level county court.

It also depends on whether the offence is part of this law or whether the alleged offence is a Commonwealth criminal offence.

Component: Holding child pornography

  • The defendant is known to have a movie, photo, publication or computer game;
  • Description or description of a person in a movie, photo, publication or computer game:
    1. Engaging in sexual activity; or
    2. Described in indecent sexual behaviour or context; and
  • The person described or described in this manner is a minor or appears to be a minor.

We will analyze each element in detail:

The defendant knowingly holds a movie, photo, publication or computer game

In Victoria, the word “intentional” has not been accurately determined.

Possession is not defined in this Law and exists in the form defined by the common law. Common law possession includes physical control for possession purposes.

Behavioural element

This requires the prosecution to prove that the defendant has actual custody or control over pornographic material. One does not need to carry materials in their people to satisfy this element. However, they must hold custody or control over them. When unrelated things are executed, the material is forgotten and found in someone’s room is very common. In the first case, the bedroom is where a person has manual supervision. In the second case, the bedroom is where a person has manual supervision. Once a person holds an item, that item will remain until the item being held is disposed of. It is said that this is under their control

Psychological element

A person usually does not intend to hold information that is automatically downloaded from the Internet to his or her computer. Some web pages on the Internet may expose people to this type of download.

Therefore, if a person only browses a website that contains pornographic images, he or she will generally not be sentenced to possess child pornography. In this case, possession intention is non-existent

Description or description of a person in a movie, photo, publication or computer game:

  1. Engaging in sexual activity; or
  2. Described by indecent sexual behaviour or the environment

Section 67A of the Act requires a film, photograph, publication or computer game to describe a person engaged in sexual activity or a person described in an indecent sexual manner or background.

There are many kinds of tests for defamation behaviours, one is inappropriate behaviour, the other is inappropriate behaviour, five are insults to modesty, and six are behaviours that people with a sense of justice consider to violate social norms. It is necessary to adopt community standards rather than the standards of any jury members. The test of indecent behaviour is still very broad, because “indecent behaviour is as varied as human imagination.”

In R v Harkin (1989) 9, the court found that indecent behaviour requires sexual connotations. However, even if the act does not produce an objective sexual connotation, if the offender’s purpose is sexual gratification, if the act violates the community standard along with the intent, then his or her intention may give the act an indecent nature. The context and/or purpose of the behaviour can determine whether the behaviour is indecent. For example, holding a photo of a naked child for legitimate medical purposes may not be indecent, but if the photo was taken by a criminal for sexual gratification (ie, pornography), then the photo would be indecent.

minorThe person described or described in this manner is a minor or appears to be a minor.

Under this element, the person described or described in sexual activity or indecent sexual behaviour is or appears to be a minor.

The age requirements for this section vary, depending on when the crime of possession of child pornography occurred:

  1. If the person is accused of committing an offence on or after May 18, 2004, the person described or described in the relevant manner must be under 18 years of age (Criminal Offences 1958 s67A).
  2. For offences allegedly committed before May 18, 2004, the person described or described in the relevant manner must be under 16 (Judicial Law (Sexual Offences and Bail) 2004 s4).

If the prosecution is based on the “significant age” of the victim, this means that the jury must be convinced that there is no doubt that the accused’s age seems to be small

In the trial, the judge will ask the jury to consider the following questions:

  1. Does the defendant deliberately hold [movie/photo/publication/computer games]?
    • 1.1 Is the item [Movie/Photo/Publishing/Computer Game]?
      If yes, go to 1.2.
      If not, the defendant did not hold child pornography.
    • 1.2 Does the defendant have personal custody or control over [movie/photo/publishing/computer games]?
      If yes, go to 1.3.
      If not, the defendant did not hold child pornography.
    • 1.3 Does the defendant intend to hold custody or exercise control over [movie/photo/publishing/computer games]?
      If yes, go to 1. 4.
      If not, the defendant did not hold child pornography.
    • 1.4 Does the defendant know that [movie/photo/publication/computer game] contains child pornography, or does the defendant realize that it is possible?
      • 1.4.1 被告是否知道[电影/照片/出版/电脑游戏]所描述或描述的某人未满18岁,或似乎未满18岁,从事性活动?
        如果是,则转到2.1
        如果没有,则转到1.4.2。
      • 1.4.2 被告是否意识到[电影/照片/出版/电脑游戏]可能描述或描述了16/18岁以下的人,或显示出16/18岁以下的人从事性活动?
        如果是,则转到2.1
        如果没有,则转到1.4.3。
      • 1.4.3 被告是否知道[电影/照片/出版/电脑游戏]所描绘的是一个16/18岁以下的人,或一个看起来16/18岁以下的人,在不雅的性行为或背景下?
        如果是,则转到2.1
        如果没有,则转到1.4.4。
      • 1.4.4 被告是否意识到[电影/照片/出版/电脑游戏]所描绘的可能是16/18岁以下的人,或16/18岁以下的人,以不雅的性行为或背景?
        如果是,则转到2.1
        如果没有,那么被告没有持有儿童色情物品。

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持有儿童色情罪的可能辩护理由

本法第70(2)条对这项指控的五项抗辩如下:

  1. 按电影和文学事务处分类
    一个人持有一部电影,照片中包含出版物或电脑游戏,涉嫌犯罪的,或者,如果电影和文学的分类的分类除了RC,[2]X或者X 18 +,持有这种辩护
  2. 艺术价值或真正的医学、法律、科学或教育目的
    如果被告能够在概率平衡下证明电影、照片、出版物或电脑游戏:

    1. 具有艺术价值;或
    2. 是为了真正的医学、法律、科学或教育目的

    要使材料具有艺术价值,它必须具有一种根据艺术标准赋予其价值或价值的品质。

    如果控方证明色情作品中描绘的人实际上年龄在18岁以下,而不是简单地看起来年龄在18。岁以下,如果指控的对象是一个虚构的人,年龄不是一个因素,那么对艺术价值的辩护就不适用

    为使行为具有真正目的,行为人所声称的目的必须是行为背后的实际目的。如果一个行为是由多个目的驱动的,那么普遍的目的必须是医学、法律、科学或教育目的

  3. 以合理理由相信未成年人年满18周岁;或者被告与未成年人结婚
    根据本条的规定,如果辩护人能够在概率平衡的基础上证明被告基于合理的理由认为:

    • 未成年人未满18周岁的;或
    • 被告与未成年人结婚

    要使一种精神状态有合理的根据,就必须存在足以使一种理智的人具有这种精神状态的事实。

  4. 被告与未成年人年龄不超过2岁
    如果被告年龄不超过未成年人的两岁或似乎年龄不超过两岁,则在下列情况下被告人可获得辩护:

    • 被告亲自制作影片或拍照;或
    • 被告被牵涉到的未成年人给了电影或照片。

    被告将国防如果他或她能证明可能性的,当他或她的电影或照片,还是考虑到影片或照片,被告不超过2岁比小或似乎。

  5. 被告是描述的未成年人之一。
    如果影片中的未成年人或未成年人之一是被告,这是对持有儿童色情制品指控的抗辩

除上述抗辩外,一般抗辩可以包括但不限于突发或非常紧急情况、非自愿行为和缺乏意图。其他抗辩事由,如事实争议、错误认定、智力障碍、必要或胁迫也可适用。

地方法院的量刑结果

量刑咨询委员会公布了2011年7月至2014年6月在地方法院对持有儿童色情物品的量刑统计数据。

Primary court三年内:

  • 法院审理了212起案件
  • 被判刑的人中有21.2%被判处有期徒刑
  • 19.3%被判处完全缓刑
  • 2.8%被判部分缓刑
  • 44.8%的人被判社区服务
  • 5.2%的人被罚款

最常见的刑期为3至6个月,其中31.1%的人被判入狱。

请注意,维多利亚州在2014年9月1日或之后的所有犯罪行为都被取消了缓刑。

要查看维多利亚郡法院对儿童色情和修饰罪行的判决决定,请访问本页。

看看我们在法庭上为持有儿童色情物品的指控辩护的一些刑事案件:

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